abdomen: The part of the body that includes the stomach, intestine, liver, bladder and kidneys. The abdomen is located between the ribs and hips.

aboriginal: A person of Aboriginal descent who identifies as an Aboriginal and is accepted as such by the community in which he or she lives.

ABS: Australian Bureau of Statistics

Active surveillance: An option for management of early, localised, aslow growing prostate canber by close monitoring to decide when curative treatment should be given.

acute pain: Pain that is severe but lasts a short time.

advanced cancer: Cancer that has spread past the site of origin to other organs.

Advanced prostate cancer: Cancer that is well established and has spread away from the prostate to lymph nodes, bones, or other parts of the body.

AIHW: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

allied health workers: People trained in occupations that support and supplement the functions of health professionals.

Androgens: Male hormones, the main one being testosterone.

Androgen-deprivation therapy: Also known as hormone suppression therapy - blocking of male hormone activity in the body either temporarily or permanently. Used in combination with radiation therapy in locally advanced prostate cancer, or as a primary approach in the control of advanced prostate cancer.

anus: The entrance to the back passage, through which bowel motions are passed.

Asymptomatic: Without symptoms (without any noticeable changes in how a personal feels, looks, or performs in spite of presence of a disease such as prostate cancer).

baseline: At the beginning of the trial, before treatment is started.

Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH): Non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland, common in older men.

bladder: A sac with an elastic wall of muscle; found in the lower part of the abdomen. The bladder stores urine until it is passed from the body.

bloating: Full, uncomfortable feeling in abdomen. Can be caused by gas, eating in excess or constipation.

body image: How you feel about your body, how you think it looks and how you present it to others.

Brachytherapy: A form of radiotherapy for prostate cancer using radiation sources (needles or small 'seeds') implanted into the prostate gland.

breakthrough pain: A brief and often severe pain that occurs even though a person may be taking pain medication regularly.

CALD: culturally and linguistically diverse.

cancer continuum: The full spectrum of cancer control services from prevention and early detection efforts, through diagnosis and treatment, to rehabilitation and support services for people living with cancer and/or palliative care.

cancer control: All actions that reduce the burden of cancer in the community. It includes every aspect of care, from prevention and early detection to curative treatment and palliative care, all underpinned by the best scientific evidence available.

cancer journey: An individual’s experience of cancer, from detection and screening, diagnosis and treatment, to relapse, recovery and/or palliative care.

cancer of unknown primary origin: A case in which cancer cells are found in the body, but the place where the cells first started growing (the origin or primary site) cannot be determined.

cancer survivor: In these resources, this term is used to mean anyone who has finished their active cancer treatment.

carcinogen: A substance known to cause and/or promote cancer. Carcinogens can be created by humans, such as cigarette smoke, or simply be present naturally in the environment, as is ultraviolet radiation from the sun, both of which are known to play a major role in the development of cancer.

carcinoma: A cancer that starts in the tissue that lines the skin and internal organs of the body.

carcinoma in situ: Cancer that involves only the cells in which it began and has not spread to nearby tissues.

care coordination: The delivery of services by different providers occurs in a coherent, logical and timely manner, consistent with the person’s medical needs and personal context.

care pathway: A care pathway describes the management and its sequence of a well-defined group of patients during a well-defined period of time.

carer: A person who helps someone through an illness or disability such as cancer.

chromosome: A thread like structure found in the nucleus of all body cells (except red blood cells) made up of strings of proteins called genes.

chronic pain: Pain that can range from mild to severe and lasts a long time.

clinical guidelines: Clinical guidelines are a graded set of recommendations to assist clinical decision-making or service planning based on best available research.

clinical pathway: A clinical pathway explicitly states that the goals and key elements of care are based on clinical guidelines, and best available evidence.

confined: Using prostate cancer as an example – the cancer if confined to or confined within the prostate gland. This means that the cancer cells have not spread from the prostate gland to other areas of the body.

consumer: A term that can refer to: patients and potential patients; carers; organisations representing cancer consumer interests; members of the public who are targets of cancer promotion programs; and groups affected in a specific way as a result of cancer policy, treatments or services. See also People affected by cancer.

consumer participation: The involvement of consumers in decision-making processes. There are many ways consumers can participate in health decision-making, from working with health care providers to improve their own health to contributing to the development and management of health services as a consumer representative. (Also see consumer)

cooperative trials groups: Networks of institutions and researchers who jointly conduct research, including clinical trials, using identical protocols and pooling their data.

Curative treatment: Treatment given with the intention of curing or eliminating the underlying disease. In the context of prostate cancer sometimes referred to as radical treatment.

Cystoscopy: Examination of the bladder using a thin tube with a light as its tip inserted through the urethra.

Digital rectal examination (DRE): Examination of the prostate gland by a doctor who inserts a gloved finger (digit) into the rectum (back passage) and feels for any changes in the size, shape and texture of the prostate.

DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid

DoH: Department of Health

dose: The amount of medication taken.

dose titration: Adjustment of medication dose either up or down.

eligibility criteria: Characteristics of the people for whom a clinical trial is suitable.

enduring power of attorney: A person who acts on behalf of the person they are caring for on all financial matters.

epidural: An injection into the spinal column, outside the lining of the spinal cord.

epithelium: The cells that make up the internal and external surfaces of the body, for example, skin, inside of lungs, ovaries.

experimental treatment: A new treatment being tested in a trial.

External beam radiation therapy (EBRT): Radiation therapy using an outside source (a machine) to deliver repeat doses or radiation.

external radiotherapy: Radiotherapy administered by a machine, which targets radiation at the cancer.

faeces: Bowel motions or stools.

familial: Indicates that a condition that can be inherited from through the generations of a family through one or more genes.

formative evaluation: Formative evaluation strengthens or improves the object (program) by examining the delivery of the program or technology, the quality of its implementation and the assessment of the organisational context, personnel procedures and inputs. Evaluation for learning and continuous quality improvement.

general anaesthetic: A general anaesthetic makes you lose consciousness and fall asleep. You can't feel anything at all.

Gleason Score: A number from 2 to 10, indicating the grade (agressiveness) of prostate cancer. The higher the score the more aggressive the cancer.

goal: An overarching statement about the desired outcome, not usually directly measurable. (Also see objective and strategy)

health outcome: A health-related change due to a preventive or clinical intervention or service. The intervention may be single or multiple, and the outcome may relate to a person, group or population, or be partly or wholly due to the intervention.

hormone replacement therapy (HRT): Drug therapy that supplies the body with hormones that it is no longer able to produce; it is used to relieve menopausal symptoms.

incidence: The number of new cases of a disease diagnosed each year.

indigenous: A person of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent who identifies as such and is accepted as such by the community with which he or she is associated.

Indolent (cancer):  'Lazy' or very slow-growing cancer.

informed consent form: The form a person signs to show that they understand the information they have been given about a trial and they agree to take part.

IPTAAS: Isolated Patients Travel and Accommodation Assistance Scheme

IT: information technology

laxative: Something to stop constipation.

local anaesthetic: A medication that blocks the feeling of pain in a specific location in the body.

Local(ised) prostate cancer: Cancer that is still contained within the prostate gland.

lymphadenectomy: Removal of the lymph glands from a part of the body.

lymphatic system: A network of vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph from the body's tissues to the bloodstream. The lymphatic system is part of the body's immune system and helps the body fight infection.

MBS: Medical Benefits Schedule

MCIS: Multicultural Cancer Information Service

Metastasis/metastasise:  Process of cancer spreading away from its primary site. In prostate cancer this usually involves spread to lymph nodes, bones and liver. Metastatic tumours or metastatic disease refers to secondary deposit of prostate cancer way from the prostate gland.

models of care: A model that explains the manner in which health care is provided and usually describes what care is provided, where it is provided and who provides it. It identifies a standard or example, for imitation or comparison, combining concepts, belief and intent.

MOGA: Medical Oncology Group of Austraia

monitoring: A follow-up process after initial diagnosis and treatment. May include clinical examinations and/or the regular performance of tests.

mortality: The death rate, or the number of deaths in a certain group of people in a certain period of time. Mortality may be reported for people who have a certain disease, live in one area of the country, or who are of a certain sex, age, or ethnic group.

multidisciplinary clinic: A multidisciplinary clinic is held in a setting such as an outpatient clinic, where several clinicians/health practitioners are available for a patient to see at one visit. Multidisciplinary clinics and meetings may be linked, where a clinic may precede or follow a multidisciplinary meeting.

multidisciplinary team: Also known as a health care team. A health care team consisting of a group of experts, including doctors, nurses and other health professionals who specialise in the treatment of specific types of cancer. Most doctors who treat the common types of cancer work with experts in a multidisciplinary team. A multidisciplinary team can include a general practitioner, a surgeon, a medical oncologist, a radiation oncologist, a palliative care specialist, a nurse consultant, nurses, a dietician, a physiotherapist, an occupational therapist, a social worker, a psychologist, a counsellor and a pastoral care worker.

multidisciplinary team meeting: Multidisciplinary meetings are a regularly scheduled meeting of core and invited team members for the purpose of prospective treatment and care planning of newly diagnosed cancer patients as well as those requiring review of treatment plans or palliative care. (Also see Tumour Board)

NACCHO: National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation

nausea: Feeling sick or wanting to be sick.

needs-based approach to cancer care: Within the population there are essentially three distinct patient groups whose differing levels of cancer care needs will determine the degree to which they will be able to access treatment and care in rural Australia: People who can be diagnosed, assessed and treated locally. People who need to be assessed elsewhere but can be treated locally. People who need to be diagnosed elsewhere and whose complex care needs and/or multi-modal treatment requirements necessitate ongoing treatment provided by a major cancer service.

neoadjuvant therapy or neoadjuvant treatment: Treatment given before the main treatment to increase the chances of a cure.

neoplasia: Any new or abnormal growth of tissues, in which the growth is uncontrolled and progressive.

nerve block: Pain medication that is injected directly into or around a nerve or into the spine to block pain.

NGO: Non-Government Organisation

NHMRC: National Health and Medical Research Council

nodes: see lymph nodes

nodule: Swelling or lump that may be cancerous or noncancerous.

nutrition: The process of eating and digesting the necessary food the body needs.

nutritious/nourishing: Food that is a good source of energy (calories) and/or protein as well as vitamins and minerals.

objective: A series of action statements derived from a stated goal that identifies what is going to be different. Evaluated to ascertain whether a program/project goal has been achieved, partially achieved or not achieved at all.

palliative care / palliative treatment: Treatment to relieve symptoms without trying to cure the disease.

PBS: Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme

pelvic: The area located below the waist and surrounded by the hips and pubic bone.

pelvic exenteration: The surgical removal of the affected organs.

pelvis/pelvic: The lower part of the trunk of the body: roughly, the area that extends from hip to hip and waist to groin.

penis: The male reproductive organ consists of a body or shaft which starts deep inside the body and extends externally to the end of the penis at the glands (head).

people affected by cancer: People who have had a personal experience of cancer, including patients, people living with cancer, cancer survivors, caregivers and family members.

placebo: A dummy pill or injection, which looks like the new treatment being tested but contains no active ingredient.

policy: A plan or course of action intended to influence and determine decisions, actions and other matters.

polyp: An abnormal growth that protrudes from a mucous membrane, often on a stalk.

Potency: The ability to have and maintain erections firm enough for penetration.

precancerous: A term used to describe a condition that may or is likely to become a cancer.

prevention: Action to reduce or eliminate the onset, causes, complications or recurrence of disease or ill health.

primary care: Primary Care is a sub-component of the broader primary health care system. Primary care is provided by a health care professional who is a client's first point of entry into the health system (for example: a general practitioner, practice nurse, community nurse, or community based allied health worker). Primary care is practised widely in nursing and allied health, but predominately in general practice.

primary health care: First level of health care, outside of hospitals. Primary Health Care (PHC) incorporates personal care with health promotion, the prevention of illness and community development. The philosophy of PHC includes the interconnecting principles of equity, access, empowerment, community self-determination and intersectoral collaboration. It encompasses an understanding of the social, economic, cultural and political determinants of health.

primary health care service: Primary health care services involve continuity of care, health promotion and education, integration of prevention with illness and/or disease management, a concern for population as well as individual health, community involvement and the use of appropriate technology

protocol: Detailed written instructions about how to complete a specific task. Describes how, when, where and who should be involved in the task. Protocols may refer to a clinical care process or the working relationship between agencies.

Prostate specific antigen (PSA): A protein produced by noth normal and abnormal (cancerous) cells of the prostate gland. Rises in blood leves of PSA can indicate a disease process within the prostate gland, including prostate cancer.

Prostatectomy: Operation to remove the prostate gland. Complete removal of the prostate gland, the portion of the urethra that runs through it, and the surrounding tissue.

Prostatodynia: Chronic or recurrent condition of the prostate marked by pelvin pain and other symptoms (not related to prostate cancer).

psycho-oncology: Concerned with the psychological, social, behavioural, and ethical aspects of cancer. This subspecialty addresses the two major psychological dimensions of cancer: the psychological responses of patients to cancer at all stages of the disease and that of their families and caretakers; and the psychological, behavioural and social factors that may influence the disease process.

psychosocial: Treatment that is intended to address psychological, social and some spiritual needs

quality of life: An individual’s overall appraisal of their situation and subjective sense of wellbeing. Quality of life encompasses symptoms of disease and side effects of treatment, functional capacity, social interactions and relationships, and occupational functioning. Key psychological aspects include subjective distress, satisfaction with treatment, existential issues, and the impact of illness and treatment on sexuality and body image.

RACGP: Royal Australian College of General Practitioners

radical local excision: An operation that cuts out the cancer and a larger area of normal tissue all around the cancer.

RCPA: Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia

rectum: The last part of the bowel, leading to the anus, through which stool passes.

recurrent cancer: A cancer that grows from the cells of a primary cancer that have evaded treatment.

referral pathways: A referral pathway is a series of steps, including clinical intervention to be taken by health care providers in response to people newly diagnosed with cancer or with recurrent or progressive disease. Its aim is to ensure more appropriate referral of patients to specialist cancer services, including the multidisciplinary team. A referral pathway is a process as much as a product or tool. Ideally it is developed via a comprehensive and inclusive approach between cancer services and relevant health care agencies to establish relationships and a shared understanding and agreed ways of working together to better address the cancer care needs of a defined population.

relapse: The return of a disease after a period of improvement.

remission: Period of time when the symptoms of the cancer reduce or disappear. A partial remission is when there has been a significant improvement in the cancer. A complete remission is when there is no evidence of active disease. This does not necessarily mean that the cancer is cured.

resection: Surgical removal of a portion of any part of the body.

respite: A support service funded by the government for carers to take a break from caring.

response: A change in the size or extent of the disease as a result of treatment.

risk: A measure of how likely a person is to develop a disease or a side effect.

risk factor: A substance or condition that increases an individual's chances of getting a particular type of cancer.

secondary health care: A service provided by specialists who don’t normally have first contact with a patient.

simulator: A machine that takes x-rays to help pinpoint where radiotherapy should be targeted.

skin graft: A piece of skin moved from one part of the body to another to cover a wound.

squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): A cancer that arises in squamous or skin-like cells.

standardisation: The adoption of generally accepted uniform procedures, parts, dimensions, or materials that directly affect the design of a product, project or a service.

surgery: Treatment that involves an operation. This may involve removal of tissue, change in the organisation of the anatomy or placement of prostheses.

tertiary health care: Care provided in a centre that has the personnel and facilities required for specialist investigation and treatment.

therapy: Another word for treatment, and includes chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormone therapy and surgery.

tissue: A collection of cells that make up each piece (or organ) of the body.

tissue biopsy: Examination of tissue that has been removed from the body under a microscope so any abnormalities in the cells can be seen.

Torres Strait Islander: A person of Torres Strait Islander descent who identifies as a Torres Strait Islander and is accepted as such by the community in which he or she lives.

Trans-rectal ultra-sound (TRUS): Examination of the prostate gland using a small instrument (probe) placed in the rectum.

Trans-urethral resection of the prostate (TURP): Removal of the prostate tissue using an instrument inserted through the urethra.

tumour board: A treatment planning approach in which a number of doctors who are experts in different specialties (disciplines) review and discuss the medical condition and treatment options of a patient. Similar to a multidisciplinary team meeting, but tends not to consider the patient’s psychological and social needs

tumour markers: Chemicals produced by cancer cells and released into the blood. These may suggest the presence of a tumour in the body. Some tumours will not have any tumour markers.

ulcer: A small wound in the skin or lining of the mouth or stomach. May be sore and swollen.

Urologist: Medical specialist who is an expert in diagnosis and treatment of urinary problems, including biopsy of the prostate and prostate surgery.

USANZ: Urological Society of Australia and New Zealand